Thursday, May 14, 2020
Human behavior is often based of the laws and expectations set by community surrounding them. Breaking these norms results in many arrays of emotions. To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare, and The Help by Kathryn Stockett all exemplify the consequences of breaking standards in societies with set norms to uphold. The various authors have crafted societies that behave in distinct manners, and classify people as either normal, or abnormal. These works show that breaking societal standards, familial standards, and ones own standards sprouts disaster, and in serious cases, leads to the demise of characters. Disregarding societal standards within civilizations controlled by prejudice is comparable to a double-edged sword. An individual is capable of standing up for their beliefs, however will ultimately be affected by a backslash of deleterious consequences. Within To Kill a Mockingbird, Calpurnia wields the sword. Calpurnia disregarded the standards established by both the white and black community, that the two opposing communities are incapable of interacting in a sociable manner. When Calpurnia introduced Jem and Scout to the members of First Purchase Church, she received discouraging remarks, as Lula says, Ã¢â¬Å"You ainÃ¢â¬â¢t got no business bringinÃ¢â¬Ë white chillun hereÃ¢â¬âthey got their church, we got ourÃ¢â¬â¢n. It is our church, ainÃ¢â¬â¢t it, Miss Cal?Ã¢â¬ (Lee 119). By resisting the norms of the feuding communities, Calpurnia, Jem, and Scout had to
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Our world has a variety of problems today, with violence being at the top of the list, you go anywhere and that is all you here about. Unfortunately itÃ¢â¬â¢s in front-page headlines of the newspaper and broadcasted on the news as top stories. Violence is a very big topic, although it is categorized into many small groups. There is juvenile violence, domestic violence, hate violence, terrorist violence, and violence displaced through various forms of the media. This research will be on violence in the media and does it affect our society. How we view television, has changed the world, no doubt in that. Turn your television set on and pick a channel at random; the odds are that half of the programs you come across will contain violent material. The statistics are overwhelming as I look on the internet, read articles, and look at the research. One of the things that most interests me in the violence on television, is the effects it has on children. Children learn by repetition while watching educational shows, so is learning violence on television an exception? This research paper is directed to parents, educational providers, psychologists in research, clinical practice, and individuals with public advocacy roles and defined by education, age and gender. Both women and men will be a core audience for this paper, as I have come across the fact that adolescent boys and adult men are more drawn to violent television then women. It will draw both genders for differentShow MoreRelatedTelevision Is Destroying Todays Youth, but Dont Blame T.V., Blame the Parents.1302 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEver since television was invented, it has become increasingly controversial every year since. So many programs and movies shown on television have become increasingly violent and show sexual innuendos and sexual content. If you were to turn on the six o clock news, you would hear about the murders and the kidnappings and the rapes and all of the horrible things which happen in so ciety, presented in a neutral manner which makes them all seem not quite so bad. Imagine how that looks to twelveRead More effects of tv violence on children Essay719 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Effects of Television Violence on Children In our society today, it is extremely important to pay attention to what influences children. One of the biggest influences AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s youth may have is the television. It is possible for children to be pulled into the televisionÃ¢â¬â¢s realistic world of violence with sometimes devastating results. The impact of television violence on youth behavior has been an issue for many years. Violent programs on television lead to negative behavior by children and teenagersRead More Media Violence and Its Effects Essay709 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesone day you lost your television. You lost your favorite talk show, your CNN, your favorite cartoon and all of your connections to the whole world. Throughout decades, media have became one of the most powerful weapons in the world. As time passed, more and more varieties of media were shown, like television, magazines, and internet. From reporting the news to persuading us to buy certain products, media became the only connection between people and the world. But violence in media is shown everywhereRead MoreEssay on cartoon violence779 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Animation Violence nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Children from the ages 6-11 spend more time watching television than they do in the classroom. The Ã¢â¬Å"renaissance of TV animationÃ¢â¬ has undoubtedly led to more violent cartoons then ever before. But to talk about cartoon violence, it must first be defined. WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s Dictionary defines violence Ã¢â¬Å"as the act (or threat) of injuring or killing someone.Ã¢â¬ (Webster) And although the violence is not real, a child does not know the difference. Throughout theRead MoreViolence in Television, Movies, and Video Games Should Not Be Censored1653 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesVIOLENCE IN TELEVISION, MOVIES, AND VIDEO GAMES SHOULD NOT BE CENSORED Television, movies, and video games have a great influence on the minds of todays youth. But, what exactly are the effects of such an influence? Certain people have exaggerated the effects that these media have on todays youth. Many people, including government officials, have singled out these three media sources as the cause of some types of violence simply because it is an easy target for laying the blame. The truth isRead MoreDesensitization From Lack Of Discretion1614 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestyrannical government, loss of freedoms such as our freedom of speech and our freedom of press, and a stronger presence of authority in our lives on the one side. On the other side our countryÃ¢â¬â¢s moral fabric could come apart, there could be a rise in violence, and the innocence of our children is at risk. It is the innocence of our children that we are going to take a closer look at. What part does uncensored media play in the desensitization of our youth? Why should we be concerned abo ut this issueRead More Violence in the Media is Not to Blame for the Effect on Children1158 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Effect of Violence in the Media on Children Television, movies, and video games are a big part of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s lives in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s technologically advanced society. However, there is a big controversy questioning the effects of these media outlets on children. Much of society claims to have proof for the belief that media violence affects children negatively. However, I am skeptical of the evidence that is stated to prove that claim. I feel that society has placed the blame on these mediums forRead MoreViolence in the Media Essay1418 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesViolence in the Media In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world, there is an endless amount of information available to people everywhere around the globe. Mass media is definitely shaping our world, whether it is in a positive way or a negative way. Television and the radio waves provide us with hours of entertainment. The emergence of the Internet allows us to access thousands of pages of information within the reach our very own fingertips. But with the convenience of all this information comes along a certain levelRead More Children and Violence: An American Media Controversy Essay1014 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesand Violence: An American Media Controversy As censorship of the American media has broken down over the years, the amount of violence allowed to be shown in movies, on television, and in video games has skyrocketed. From coast to coast in our nation, this saturation of hostility in our media has caused many contentious debates between scholars, parents, students and government officials alike. In this controversy, the central argument revolves around the effects violent media has on our societyRead MoreViolence And Sex On Television898 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Violence and Sex on Television: Effects on the Younger Audience In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, the media is used greatly for communication, advertisement, information, and for numerous other reasons. The world has evolved by technological advances as well as by the type of content that is put out on the internet, radio, and especially on television. In particular, violence and sex are two of the most controversial content types that have been recently used loosely in the present as compared to the
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Cognitive Dissonance in Mean Girls. Answer: Definition of Cognitive Dissonance Theory (CDT) Cognitive Dissonance refers to the mental discomfort that is experienced by a person when he has to perform an action that contradicts the values and personal beliefs of a person. (Ciao et al., 2015). According to the principle of consistency theory, new stimuli are assimilated with that of the old encountered stimuli. If the new stimulus is found to be inconsistent, then acute discomfort is experienced by the person. Human beings crave for consistency and psychological inconsistency gives rise to dissonance. Dissonance triggers effort that helps in achieving consonance. The cognitions that are contradictory and are of less importance give rise to less amount of dissonance. The relevant cognitions being consistent and outnumbering the dissonant one, will produce less amount of dissonance. Attitudes and thoughts that are inconsistent give rise to feelings of dissonance that provides a feeling of unpleasant arousal. The dissonant beliefs should be reduced and adding to the consonant be liefs can serve as useful techniques in dealing with the dissonance. Application of Cognitive Dissonance Theory in Mean Girls Cady Heron who was born in Africa was a victim of culture shock when she joined the American High School and wanted to become a part of the girl world. Friendships are fake in that world and tensions are rampant as she is forced to assimilate in the Plastics that is a popular group. It brings to the fore a strong woman who has a fixed perspective on everything. (Oliver, 2013).The movie highlights the brutality that exists in the heart of the high school students. Cadys life in high school is full of such situations that compel her to reject values related to her previous life. She is forced to assimilate in the new culture that gives rise to cognitive dissonance. Her external appearance along with her internal self undergoes a drastic transformation. Regina the Queen Bea, has assimilated herself in the life of high school and she is also a result of the factor of dissonance. Her friend wants to sabotage her life, blackmail her and spread wrong information regarding her. Cady soon becomes like the Plastics when she wants to cut off the resources of Regina and want to separate her from Aaron and destroys her beauty. She manages to turn Gretchen Wieners along with that of Karen Smith against that of Regina. Cady pretends to be weak at math so that she can get the attention of Aaron and arranges the break-up between that of Aaron and Regina. She confesses regarding the infidelity of Regina with that of another boy. Cady does this because she cann ot ingratiate herself in the new culture and she wants to break the bonds and friendships of her friends at school. It is her insecurity that led her to do this (Walsh, Sekarasih Scharrer, 2014). Cady was facing difficulty because she cannot easily integrate herself in the new culture and took the evil way out. Cady forces Regina to have the high calorie nutrition bars by saying that it would help her to lose weight. Gretchen who is the Dumb Girl also suffers from cognitive dissonance but cognitive dissonance is felt less by her as compared to that of Cady. When Regina starts favouring Cady instead of Gretchen, then Gretcen feels insulted and her world is shattered. Gretchen then loses her sense of morality and begins spreading gossip and wrong information regarding Regina (Cvencek, Meltzoff Kapur, 2014). The character of Karen faces the least case of cognitive dissonance and she is the least vitriolic of all the characters. Her character serves like a basic moral compass. Karen recognizes the mean and abject behavior of the girls. Gretchens burst of dissonance comes to light when she over shares secrets regarding Regina to Caddy. Her feelings can be easily understood with t he use of expression: Ive never told anyone this before (Oppliger, 2013). In order to get revenge on the character of Regina, Cady undergoes a lot of transformation and moulds herself in the image of Regina without realizing that the qualities of Regina does not deserve not be imitated. Social influence along with peer pressure compelled Cady to change herself and changes in circumstance and situation led to drastic changes in the behavior of Cady. (Brock et al., 2014). Cady was put into a place which maintained a great degree of social influence. She went on to give more importance to the meanest girls at school which cost her greatly. Cady was so overcome by the need to fit in that she forgot about all the moral principles that she was taught. Regina kissed the guy on whom Cady had a crush thus infuriating Cady, Janice along with Damian. They fed her Kalteen bars which made her grow fatter and gave her foot-cream to apply on her face. Regina is soon kicked out of the Plastics which makes the room for a new Queen Bae. When Cady becomes a Plastic then Regina gets revenge on her by writing about her in Burn Book. They then undergo a trust workshop where Jenice tells Regina that Cady becoming a member of Plastic was only a matter of joke. Cady Heron undergoes de-individuation in the movie and she has to lose her sense of self-awareness (Rohde et al., 2016). In the Spring Fling Dance, Cady got elected as the Queen and in her famous acceptance speech she declared that her victory does not hold any meaning and she recognizes that everyone has their own wonderful abilities. The victory in a sense belongs to everyone. Cady breaking her tiara and distributing it to her other class mates stands as a gesture that is symbolic. Cady understand that quarrelling is futile and ingratiates herself with that of Janis, Damien and Aaron. She reaches truce with that of The Plastics (Antoniou, Doukas Subrahmanyam, 2013). By the start of the next year, The Plastics disbanded. Regina joins the team of lacrosse, Karen got acknowledged as the school weather girl and Gretchen joined the gang of Cool Asians. Conformity plays a great role in changing the actions of the characters in the movie Mean Girls. People follow the behavior of other people so that they can go along with the accepted social norms and they seek approval of their individuality. Cady has two perspectives in relation to the popular group- The Plastics. On one hand, she views The Plastic as evil and on the other hand she starts craving for the attention and liking of the group. These are the two cognitive dissonances that compel Cady to face the issue of cognitive dissonance (Bae, 2016). There is a part of her that is ideal which does not go along with that of the moral policy of The Plastics and she goes around with them in order to pull the characters down. On the other hand, is her real self that is hanging out with The Plastics so that she can be liked by the group. The character of Regina George who is considered to be very popular in school also undergoes a lot of conflict in their mind. Her ideal and her real self cannot easily match up. Her ideal self wants to become more popular but her real self is extremely self-conscious Moore, P. A. (2016). She just tries to make the pretence of being confident and assumes a kind of stance that is unflawed. She was concerned regarding her weight and did not want her school mates to think that she was fat. Conclusion and Implication In the course of the movie, Cady becomes like the Plastics and she becomes judgemental and she tries to fit in the wrong place. She loses her identity by conforming to the behavior of Plastics. The movie Mean Girls thus shows Cady trying to assimilate into a foreign culture and the mental turmoil that she had to endure in order to fit in the new life. Cady undergoes Cognitive Dissonance in her new social milieu as the culture perpetrated on her was drastically different from that of her life in Africa (Trekels Eggermont, 2017). Fake Friendships are exhibited in the movie Mean Girls and Cady has to endure a lot of tensions since she is forced to assimilate in the popular group Plastics. Karen has to go through the least case of cognitive dissonance and her character serves the role of that of a moral compass. Karen understands the mean behavior of the girls. Conformity plays a pivotal role that changes the mindset of characters in the movie Mean Girls. People followed and imitated th e behavior of other people irrespective of the fact whether they were right or wrong (Halliwell Diedrichs, 2014). Getting recognized and assimilation was more important for them as compared to that of the following the right moral path. While on the one hand Cady views The Plastic as an evil group on the other hand she starts still gropes for getting attention from the malicious group craving for the attention. These two cognitive dissonances force Cady to face cognitive dissonance and she undergoes a lot of mental turmoil. References: Antoniou, C., Doukas, J. A., Subrahmanyam, A. (2013). Cognitive dissonance, sentiment, and momentum.Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis,48(1), 245-275. Bae, B. B. (2016). Believing Selves and Cognitive Dissonance: Connecting Individual and Society via Belief.Religions,7(7), 86. Brock, C. H., Oikonomidoy, E. M., Wulfing, K., Pennington, J. L., Obenchain, K. M. (2014). Mean girls go to college: Exploring femalefemale relational bullying in an undergraduate literacy methods course.Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology,20(4), 516. Ciao, A. C., Latner, J. D., Brown, K. E., Ebneter, D. S., Becker, C. B. (2015). Effectiveness of a peer?delivered dissonance?based program in reducing eating disorder risk factors in high school girls.International Journal of Eating Disorders,48(6), 779-784. Cvencek, D., Meltzoff, A. N., Kapur, M. (2014). Cognitive consistency and mathgender stereotypes in Singaporean children.Journal of experimental child psychology,117, 73-91. Halliwell, E., Diedrichs, P. C. (2014). Testing a dissonance body image intervention among young girls.Health Psychology,33(2), 201. Moore, P. A. (2016). Smells Like Teen Spirit. InThe Hidden Power of Smell(pp. 167-186). Springer International Publishing. Oliver, R. T. (2013).Cognitive Dissonance: The Causal Factor for Drop Out from Parent Training Programs among Ethnically Diverse Parent Populations. Northcentral University. Oppliger, P. A. (2013).Bullies and Mean Girls in Popular Culture. McFarland. Rohde, P., Stice, E., Shaw, H., Gau, J. M. (2016). Pilot trial of a dissonance-based cognitive-behavioral group depression prevention with college students.Behaviour research and therapy,82, 21-27. Trekels, J., Eggermont, S. (2017). Aspiring to have the looks of a celebrity: young girls engagement in appearance management behaviors.European Journal of Pediatrics, 1-7. Walsh, K. R., Sekarasih, L., Scharrer, E. (2014). Mean Girls and Tough Boys: Children's Meaning Making and Media Literacy Lessons on Gender and Bullying in the United States.Journal of Children and Media,8(3), 223-239.
Tuesday, April 7, 2020
INTRODUCTION Jack London (1876-1916) was easily the most successful and best-known writer in America in the first decade of the 20th century. He is best known for his books, The Call of the Wild, White Fang, and The Sea-Wolf, and a few short stories, such as To Build a Fire and The White Silence. He was a productive writer whose fiction traveled through three lands and their cultures such as the Yukon, California, and the South Pacific. His most famous writings included war, boxing stories, and the life of the Molokai lepers. "He was among the most influential people of his day, who understood how to use the media to market his self-created image of a once poor boy to now famous writer"(biography of Jack London). He left over fifty books of novels, stories, journalism, and essays. BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION London was born in San Francisco to an unmarried mother, Flora Wellman. His father may have been William Chaney, a journalist, and lawyer. Because Flora was ill, for eight months Jack was raised by an ex-slave, Virginia Prentiss. Late in 1876, Flora married John London, a partially disabled Civil War veteran, who adopted Jack. The family moved around the Bay area for a while before settling in Oakland, where Jack completed grade school. When he was young, London worked at different hard jobs. He searched for oysters on San Francisco Bay, served on a fish patrol, sailed the Pacific on a sealing ship, hoboed around the country, and returned to attend high school at age 19. During that time, he became familiar with socialism. He ran unsuccessfully several times for Mayor of Oakland. London's great love became agriculture, and he often said he wrote to support his Beauty Ranch in Glen Ellen. He brought techniques observed in Japan, like terracing and manure spreading and used them on his farm. Troubled by physical problems, during his thirties, London developed kidney disease. He died on November 22, 1916. Following his death, for a number of reasons a myth developed in which he was made up to be an alcoholic womanizer who committed suicide. But it was proved wrong. But its rumor has resulted in neglect of his books and his popularity. His writings became translated in several dozen languages, and he remains more widely read by other countries around the world, than in America LITERARY INFORMATION Because he read so much, he chose to become a writer as an escape from the terrible life as a factory worker. He studied many famous writings and began to submit stories, jokes, and poems but most came without success. His experiences when he was a boy, later formed books for boys' adventure stories like The Cruise of the Dazzler (1902) and Tales of the Fish Patrol (1905). A committed socialist, he insisted against editorial pressures to write political essays and insert social criticism in his fiction. Spending the winter of 1897 in the Yukon, he began publishing in the Overland Monthly in 1899. Many were books were written during this period of his life he told stories in The Son of the Wolf (1900), Children of the Frost (1902), Smoke Bellew (1912). Although The Call of the Wild (1903) brought him lots of fame , many of his short stories also became famous, like The People of the Abyss (1903), and the same for his discussion of alcoholism in John Barleycorn (1913). London's concern for the outcasts of society were notably written in The People of the Abyss (1903), a harrowing portrayal of English slum life and The Road (1907). His struggle to become a writer is recorded in his autobiographical novel, Martin Eden (1909). London's long voyage (1907-09) across the Pacific in a small boat also created more books about the cultures he saw. He helped break the fear that people had about leprosy. After their marriage he followed with a book he co-wrote with Anna Strunsky, The Kempton-Wace Letters, which said that mates should be selected for good breeding, not love. (Bess agreed.) London's fiction and political writings express a strong commitment to his belief individualism and socialism. Bibliography BIBLIOGRAPHY "Biography of Jack London" The Jack London collection (DL SUNSITE) "Jack London Search Results" BIOGRAPHY.COM. "London, Jack" Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. CD-ROM. 1996 ed.
Monday, March 9, 2020
History of Computer Essay Example History of Computer Essay History of Computer Essay HISTORY OF COMPUTER THE PRE-MECHANICAL AGE: 3000 B. C. Ã¢â¬â 1450 A. D. 1. Writing and Alphabets Ã¢â¬â Communication First development of signs corresponding to spoken sounds, instead of pictures, to express words. Around 2000 B. C. , Phoenicians created symbols that expressed single syllables and consonants (the first true alphabet) The Greeks later adopted the Phoenician alphabet and added vowels; the Romans gave the letters Latin names to create the alphabet we use today. 2. Paper and Pens Ã¢â¬â input technologies. SumeriansÃ¢â¬â¢ input technology was a stylus that could scratch marks in wet clay. About 2600 B. C. , the Egyptians wrote on the papyrus plant. Around 100 A. D. , the Chinese made paper from rags, on which modern-day paper-making is based. 3. Books and Libraries Ã¢â¬â output technologies (permanent storage devices) Religious leaders in Mesopotamia kept the earliest Ã¢â¬Å"booksÃ¢â¬ The Egyptians kept scrolls. Around 600 B. C. , the Greeks began to fold sheet of papyrus vertically into leaves and bind them together. 4. The First Numbering System Egyptian system: The numbers 1-9 as vertical lines, the number 10 as a U or circle, the number 100 as a coiled rope, and the number 1,000 as a lotus blossom. The first numbering system similar to those in use today were invented between 100 and 200 A. D. by Hindus in India who created a nine-digit numbering system. Around 875 A. D. , the concept of zero was developed. 5. The First Calculator: The Abacus. One of the very first information processor. The Abacus was manÃ¢â¬â¢s first recorded adding machine. It was in 500 B. C. when the Abacus was invented in Babylonia, then popularized in China, the Abacus is an ancient computing device constructed of sliding beads on small wooden rods, strung on a wooden frame. You could call the Abacus as the first Calculator. THE MECHANICAL AGE: 1450 Ã¢â¬â 1840 1. The first Information Explosion. Johann Gutenberg ( Mainz, Germany; c. 1387-1468) Invented the movable metal-type printing process in 1450. 2. The first general purpose Ã¢â¬Å"computersÃ¢â¬ People are the one who held the job title Ã¢â¬Å"computerÃ¢â¬ : One who works with numbers. 1614 John Napier introduces logarithms, he invents logs. Logs allow multiplication and division to be reduced to addition and subtraction. 1617 John Napier employing an ancient numerical scheme known as the Arabian lattice, lays out special version of the multiplication tables on a set of four-sided wooden rods, allowing users to multiply and divide large numbers and find square and cube roots. 1623 Wilhelm Shickard, a professor at the University of Tubingen, Germany who invented the first mechanical calculator that can work with six digits and carries digits across columns. 1625 William Oughtred (1575-1660) invented the slide rule. 1642 Blaise Pascal invented a mechanical calculation machine and he called it as Pascaline. The Pascaline can solve mathematical problems like addition and subtraction. 1671 Gottfried Leibniz, a German mathematician who invented a machine called Stepped Reckoner that could multiply 5 digit and 12 digit number yielding up to 16 digit number. 1801 Joseph-Marie Jacquard developed an automatic loom that was controlled by punched cards. 1820 Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar a French who developed the Arithmometer, This device performed the same type of computations as LeibnizÃ¢â¬â¢s Stepped Reckoner, but was more reliable. 1821 Charles Babbage invented the first, modern Computer Design: a steam powered adding machine called the Ã¢â¬Å"Difference engine. Ã¢â¬ Babbage understood that long math problems were just repetitive operations. Therefore, Babbage made a machine to automatically solve math problems. 1832 Babbage also invented the Ã¢â¬Å"Analytical Engine. Ã¢â¬ A mechanical adding machine that took information from punch cards to solve and print complex mathematical operations. 1842 The first program was written by Ada Augusta Lovelace for BabbageÃ¢â¬â¢s Difference Engine. Thus Ada Lovelace is credited with being the first computer programmer. The programming language Ada is named in her honor. THE ELECTROMECHANICAL AGE: 1840 Ã¢â¬â 1940 1. The beginning of Telecommunication. Voltaic battery The first electric battery, known as the voltaic pile, was invented in 1800 by Alessandro Volta. Telegraph Samuel F. B. Morse conceived of his version of an electromagnetic telegraph in 1832 and constructed an experimental version in 1853. Telephone and Radio 1876 Alexander Graham Bell developed the first working telephone and transmitted his now famous quotations Ã¢â¬Å"Watson, come here, I want you. Ã¢â¬ 1894 Guglielmo Marconi discovered that electrical waves travel through space and can produce an effect far from the point at which they originated. 1852 George Boole develops binary algebra. This became known as Boolean algebra and became important in the 20th century when binary computers were developed. 2. Electromechanical Computing 1853 Pehr and Edvard Scheutz complete their Tabulating Machine, capable of processing fifteen-digit numbers, printing out results, and rounding off to eight digits. 1885 Dorr Felt devices the Comptometer, a key driven adding and subtracting calculator. 889 FeltÃ¢â¬â¢s Comptograph, containing a built-in printer, is introduced. 1890 The first person to successfully use punched cards- specifically for census taking- was Herman Hollerith. By the 19th century, the number of people in the United States was so large, it took seven years to count them all. 1893 Otto Shweiger, a Swiss engineer, invented the first efficient four function calculator called the Milli onaire. 1906 Lee De Forest invented the Vacuum tube. This was important because it provided an electrically controlled switch; a necessity for digital electronics computer. History of the computer electronic age Presentation Transcript HISTORY OF THE COMPUTER THE ELECTRONIC AGE 1941-PRESENT 1941: KONRAD ZUSE Built the first programmable computer called the Z3, capable of following instructions . Z3- was the first fully functional, PROGRAM CONTROLLED computer of the world. Z1 Z3` 1942-Howard Hattaway Aiken A student of Harvard University built the Mark I Ã¢â¬Å" The First Stored-Program Computer. ASCC Harvard Mark 1 is 8 feet tall, 51 feet long, 2 feet thick, weighed 5 tons, used about 750,000 parts, 500 miles of wires, 3-5 seconds per calculation. A- Automatic S-Sequence C-Controlled C-Calculator 1942: John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry Completed the first all-electronic computer, called the ABC Computer, it was the first computer to use electricity in the form of vacuum tubes to help make electric computation possible. This is used for solving complex system of equations. ATANASOFF BERRY THE FOUR GENERATIONS OF DIGITAL COMPUTING THE FIRST GENERATION COMPUTERS: 1951-1958 VACCUM TUBES AS THEIR MAIN LOGIC ELEMENTS. PUNCH CARDS TO INPUT and EXTENALLY STORE DATA. ROTATING MAGNETIC DRUMS FOR INTERNAL STORAGE OF DATA PROGRAMS. First generation computer had vacuum tubes, resistors, and welded metal joints. They were large, slow, expensive, and produced a lot of heat. Often broke down because of burned-out vacuum tubes. Also needed many experts to operate them. When running these computer, people stood by shopping carts full of replacement of vacuum tubes. 1945: PRESPER EKERT and JOHN MAUCHLY Developed the first operational electronic digital computer, called ENIAC, for the US Army. It is over 1000 times faster than Mark I, and could perform 5,000 additions per second. E- Electronic N-Numerical I-Integrator A-and C-Calculator ENIAC had more than 18,000 vacuum tubes, and took up 1,800 square feet of space. In addition, the electrical current of ENIAC required could power more than a thousand modern computers. Today ENIACÃ¢â¬â¢s technology could fit in a modern wristwatch. ECKERT and MAUCHLY 1951: UNIVAC This computer was also designed by Eckert and Mauchly , became the first commercially available electronic computer. One of this version the UNIVAC 5 was used to predict result of the 1952 US presidential election. It is used for business transactions and operations. UNIVAC is 5 feet tall, 50 feet in length. Consist of 5,600 vacuum tubes and 18,000 crystal diodes. An internal storage of 1000 words or 12,000 characters. UNIV ersal A utomatic C alculator 1951-1953: MAGNETIC CORE MEMORY This was the fastest type of memory until the late 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s. 1953: IBM 701 Known as the Ã¢â¬Å"DEFENSE CALCULATOR. IBMÃ¢â¬â¢s first commercial or business scientific calculator.
Friday, February 21, 2020
Strategic Perspectives - Essay Example The paper also reveals the strengths, opportunities, weaknesses and threats of the Company. The value chain analysis and the resource capability analysis of Zara reflect the systematic and effective management of the products and services which has helped the company to achieve a successful position in the retail industry. This paper also provides insights on the current issues regarding the violence of the CSR activities by the company. It has been identified that the company should plan for an effective cost structure to overcome the recent problems. Recommendations have been provided using porterÃ¢â¬â¢s three generic strategies and AnsoffÃ¢â¬â¢s matrix to help the company make suitable strategies for achieving competitive advantage through market penetration and product differentiation. Table of Contents Table of Contents 3 Zara: A Company Overview 4 External Analysis 4 PESTEL Analysis 4 Industry Analysis: PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Forces Analysis 6 Value Chain Analysis 7 Resource Capability Analysis 9 Issues related to the PR crises of Zara 10 Strategy Recommendation 11 Strategy Evaluation 15 Conclusion 16 References 17 Appendix 20 Zara: A Company Overview Zara is a well known Spanish clothing and accessories retailer. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s headquarter is located in Arteixo, Spain. The company was founded by Amancio Ortea Gaona. It is one of the renowned brands of Inditex which was founded in the year 1975. The company had a slow growth in its initial years of operations but expanded to a great extent after the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s. Zara is successfully operating in more than thirty different countries. Presently it is one of the leading fashions designing as well as manufacturing companies successfully providing services to the customers. External Analysis The environmental scanning of Zara will be done using the PESTEL Analysis. Pestel Analysis helps in analysing the issues related to the macro environmental factors (Lorat, 2009). PESTEL Analysis Factors Analysis Political UK is presently facing various problems related to high public debt, high unemployment etc. The government has taken important measures like cutting down the budget to an extent of 23 percent for media department, 22 percent for sports and culture department in order to reduce the overall financial deficit caused due to the sovereign debt crisis and the economic recession (Lynn, 2010). The Government has also planned to decrease the corporate tax rate in order to facilitate the companies operating in the country to recover from their financial crisis condition. Economic The economic recession has affected the European countries including United Kingdom. This recession has resulted in the increased unemployment rate for UK. Economists have also forecasted the future rise of the unemployment rate in the coming years. The recession has resulted in the decrease in the purchasing power of the customers as well. Thus the fashion retailers will have to face a situation of demand crunch du e to their operation in UK. Social The sovereign debt crisis along with the budget deficit in UK has decreased the purchasing capacity of the individuals and has also created a challenge in maintaining a standard life style. The working age population in UK is rising. The fashion retailers should focus on bringing a change in its product portfolio in future in order to satisfy the needs of the aging population of the country. Technological The retailers in UK are